## 4.5 Vertical spacing

As a rule, LilyPond’s vertical spacing of musical objects is pretty good. Let’s see how it does with a simple song, with 2 voices and piano accompaniment:

There’s nothing wrong with the default vertical spacing. However, let’s assume that you’re working with a publisher with some specific requirements for vertical spacing of staves and lyrics: they want the lyrics spaced away from any notes, they want the piano accompaniment spaced away from the vocal line and they want the two piano staves pushed together tightly. Let’s start with the lyrics.

Lyrics sit within a system, and therefore the commands to space them are found in Flexible vertical spacing within systems. It tells us that lyrics are `non-staff lines` and therefore the command to change their spacing will refer to the `nonstaff` property. Spacing them away from the staff to which they relate (the top line) will use the `relatedstaff` property. Spacing them from the lower line will use the `unrelatedstaff` property. The vocal parts are part of a `VerticalAxisGroup`, so we need to adjust its properties. Let’s try it and see if it works.

```<<
\new ChoirStaff
<<
\new Staff {
\new Voice = "music" {
b'2 c' c' c'
}
}
\new Lyrics \with {
\override VerticalAxisGroup.
\override VerticalAxisGroup.
}
\lyricsto "music" {
Here are some lyrics
}
\new Staff {
\clef bass e'2 f e c
}
>>
\new PianoStaff
<<
\new Staff {
g''2 c'' c'' a''
}
\new Staff {
\clef bass e2 f c e
}
>>
>>
```

Well - yes it does, but perhaps too well. When we set the `padding` to 5, LilyPond adds 5 staff spaces to the distance between objects, which is too much for us here. We’ll use 2.

Next, let’s move the piano music away from the vocal parts. The vocal music is a `ChoirStaff`, so we need to increase the spacing between that group of staves and the piano staff below. We’ll do this by changing the `basic-distance` of the `StaffGrouper`’s `staffgroup-staff-spacing`.

```<<
\new ChoirStaff \with {
\override StaffGrouper.
staffgroup-staff-spacing.basic-distance = #15
}
<<
\new Staff {
\new Voice = "music" {
b'2 c' c' c'
}
}
\new Lyrics \with {
\override VerticalAxisGroup.
\override VerticalAxisGroup.
}
\lyricsto "music" {
Here are some lyrics
}
\new Staff {
\clef bass e'2 f e c
}
>>
\new PianoStaff
<<
\new Staff {
g''2 c'' c'' a''
}
\new Staff {
\clef bass e2 f c e
}
>>
>>
```

Excellent. Now just for the last requirement to make the piano staves closer together. To do this, we again alter the properties of the `StaffGrouper`, but this time we’re going to reduce both the `basic-distance` and the `padding`. We can do this as shown below.

```<<
\new ChoirStaff \with {
\override StaffGrouper.
staffgroup-staff-spacing.basic-distance = #15
}
<<
\new Staff {
\new Voice = "music" {
b'2 c' c' c'
}
}
\new Lyrics \with {
\override VerticalAxisGroup.
\override VerticalAxisGroup.
}
\lyricsto "music" {
Here are some lyrics
}
\new Staff {
\clef bass e'2 f e c
}
>>
\new PianoStaff \with {
\override StaffGrouper.staff-staff-spacing = #'(
(basic-distance . 0)
}
<<
\new Staff {
g''2 c'' c'' a''
}
\new Staff {
\clef bass e2 f c e
}
>>
>>
```

That’s put them really close together – but it’s what the publisher wanted. They could be moved further apart by altering the `padding` or `basic-distance` if wanted.

There are many ways of altering vertical spacing. A key point to remember is that the spacing between objects in a `StaffGroup` (like `GrandStaff` or `PianoStaff` groups) is controlled by the spacing variables of the `StaffGrouper`. Spacing from ungrouped staves (like `Lyrics` and `Staff`) is controlled by the variables of the `VerticalAxisGroup`. See the Flexible vertical spacing paper variables and Flexible vertical spacing within systems for more details.

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