### 2.1.4 Articulation and dynamics

#### Articulations

Music Glossary: articulation.

Common articulations can be added to a note using a dash - and a single character:

c4-^ c-+ c-- c-!
c4-> c-. c2-_

#### Fingerings

Music Glossary: fingering.

Similarly, fingering indications can be added to a note using a dash (-) and the digit to be printed:

c4-3 e-5 b-2 a-1

Articulations and fingerings are usually placed automatically, but you can specify a direction by replacing the dash (-) with ^ (up) or _ (down). You can also use multiple articulations on the same note. However, in most cases it is best to let LilyPond determine the articulation directions.

c4_-^1 d^. f^4_2-> e^-_+

#### Dynamics

Music Glossary: dynamics, crescendo, decrescendo.

Dynamic signs are made by adding the markings (with a backslash) to the note:

c4\ff c\mf c\p c\pp

Crescendi and decrescendi are started with the commands \< and \>. The next dynamics sign, for example \f, will end the (de)crescendo, or the command \! can be used:

c4\< c\ff\> c c\!