### 1.3.2 Expressive marks as curves

This section explains how to create various expressive marks that are curved: normal slurs, phrasing slurs, breath marks, falls, and doits.

#### Slurs

Slurs are entered using parentheses:

Note: In polyphonic music, a slur must be terminated in the same voice it began.

```f4( g a) a8 b(
a4 g2 f4)
<c e>2( <b d>2)
```

Slurs may be manually placed above or below the staff; see Direction and placement.

Simultaneous or overlapping slurs are not permitted, but a phrasing slur can overlap a slur. This permits two slurs to be printed at once. For details, see Phrasing slurs.

Slurs can be solid, dotted, or dashed. Solid is the default slur style:

```c4( e g2)
\slurDashed
g4( e c2)
\slurDotted
c4( e g2)
\slurSolid
g4( e c2)
```

Slurs can also be made half-dashed (the first half dashed, the second half solid) or half-solid (the first half solid, the second half dashed):

```c4( e g2)
\slurHalfDashed
g4( e c2)
\slurHalfSolid
c4( e g2)
\slurSolid
g4( e c2)
```

Custom dash patterns for slurs can be defined:

```c4( e g2)
\slurDashPattern #0.7 #0.75
g4( e c2)
\slurDashPattern #0.5 #2.0
c4( e g2)
\slurSolid
g4( e c2)
```

#### Predefined commands

`\slurUp`, `\slurDown`, `\slurNeutral`, `\slurDashed`, `\slurDotted`, `\slurHalfDashed`, `\slurHalfSolid`, `\slurDashPattern`, `\slurSolid`.

#### Selected Snippets

Using double slurs for legato chords

Some composers write two slurs when they want legato chords. This can be achieved by setting `doubleSlurs`.

```\relative c' {
\set doubleSlurs = ##t
<c e>4( <d f> <c e> <d f>)
}
```

Positioning text markups inside slurs

Text markups need to have the `outside-staff-priority` property set to false in order to be printed inside slurs.

```\relative c'' {
\override TextScript.avoid-slur = #'inside
\override TextScript.outside-staff-priority = ##f
c2(^\markup { \halign #-10 \natural } d4.) c8
}
```

Making slurs with complex dash structure

Slurs can be made with complex dash patterns by defining the `dash-definition` property. `dash-definition` is a list of `dash-elements`. A `dash-element` is a list of parameters defining the dash behavior for a segment of the slur.

The slur is defined in terms of the bezier parameter t which ranges from 0 at the left end of the slur to 1 at the right end of the slur. `dash-element` is a list ```(start-t stop-t dash-fraction dash-period)```. The region of the slur from `start-t` to `stop-t` will have a fraction `dash-fraction` of each `dash-period` black. `dash-period` is defined in terms of staff spaces. `dash-fraction` is set to 1 for a solid slur.

```\relative c' {
\once \override
Slur.dash-definition = #'((0 0.3 0.1 0.75)
(0.3 0.6 1 1)
(0.65 1.0 0.4 0.75))
c4( d e f)
\once \override
Slur.dash-definition = #'((0 0.25 1 1)
(0.3 0.7 0.4 0.75)
(0.75 1.0 1 1))
c4( d e f)
}
```

Music Glossary: slur.

Learning Manual: On the un-nestedness of brackets and ties.

Notation Reference: Direction and placement, Phrasing slurs.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: Slur.

#### Phrasing slurs

Phrasing slurs (or phrasing marks) that indicate a musical sentence are written using the commands `\(` and `\)` respectively:

```c4\( d( e) f(
e2) d\)
```

Typographically, a phrasing slur behaves almost exactly like a normal slur. However, they are treated as different objects; a `\slurUp` will have no effect on a phrasing slur. Phrasing may be manually placed above or below the staff; see Direction and placement.

Simultaneous or overlapping phrasing slurs are not permitted.

Phrasing slurs can be solid, dotted, or dashed. Solid is the default style for phrasing slurs:

```c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurDashed
g4\( e c2\)
\phrasingSlurDotted
c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurSolid
g4\( e c2\)
```

Phrasing slurs can also be made half-dashed (the first half dashed, the second half solid) or half-solid (the first half solid, the second half dashed):

```c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurHalfDashed
g4\( e c2\)
\phrasingSlurHalfSolid
c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurSolid
g4\( e c2\)
```

Custom dash patterns for phrasing slurs can be defined:

```c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurDashPattern #0.7 #0.75
g4\( e c2\)
\phrasingSlurDashPattern #0.5 #2.0
c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurSolid
g4\( e c2\)
```

Dash pattern definitions for phrasing slurs have the same structure as dash pattern definitions for slurs. For more information about complex dash patterns, see the snippets under Slurs.

#### Predefined commands

`\phrasingSlurUp`, `\phrasingSlurDown`, `\phrasingSlurNeutral`, `\phrasingSlurDashed`, `\phrasingSlurDotted`, `\phrasingSlurHalfDashed`, `\phrasingSlurHalfSolid`, `\phrasingSlurDashPattern`, `\phrasingSlurSolid`.

Learning Manual: On the un-nestedness of brackets and ties.

Notation Reference: Direction and placement, Slurs.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: PhrasingSlur.

#### Breath marks

Breath marks are entered using `\breathe`:

```c2. \breathe d4
```

Unlike other expressive marks, a breath mark is not associated with the preceding note but is a separate music event. So all the expressive marks which are attached to the preceding note, any square brackets indicating manual beams, and any brackets indicating slurs and phrasing slurs must be placed before `\breathe`.

A breath mark will end an automatic beam; to override this behavior, see Manual beams.

```c8 \breathe d e f g2
```

Musical indicators for breath marks in ancient notation, divisiones, are supported. For details, see Divisiones.

#### Selected Snippets

Changing the breath mark symbol

The glyph of the breath mark can be tuned by overriding the `text` property of the `BreathingSign` layout object with any markup text.

```\relative c'' {
c2
\override BreathingSign.text =
\markup { \musicglyph #"scripts.rvarcomma" }
\breathe
d2
}
```

Using a tick as the breath mark symbol

Vocal and wind music frequently uses a tick mark as a breathing sign. This indicates a breath that subtracts a little time from the previous note rather than causing a short pause, which is indicated by the comma breath mark. The mark can be moved up a little to take it away from the stave.

```\relative c'' {
c2
\breathe
d2
\override BreathingSign.Y-offset = #2.6
\override BreathingSign.text =
\markup { \musicglyph #"scripts.tickmark" }
c2
\breathe
d2
}
```

Inserting a caesura

Caesura marks can be created by overriding the `'text` property of the `BreathingSign` object. A curved caesura mark is also available.

```\relative c'' {
\override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
\musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.straight"
}
c8 e4. \breathe g8. e16 c4

\override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
\musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.curved"
}
g8 e'4. \breathe g8. e16 c4
}
```

Music Glossary: caesura.

Notation Reference: Divisiones.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: BreathingEvent, BreathingSign, Breathing_sign_engraver.

#### Falls and doits

Falls and doits can be added to notes using the `\bendAfter` command. The direction of the fall or doit is indicated with a plus or minus (up or down). The number indicates the pitch interval that the fall or doit will extend beyond the main note.

```c2\bendAfter #+4
c2\bendAfter #-4
c2\bendAfter #+6.5
c2\bendAfter #-6.5
c2\bendAfter #+8
c2\bendAfter #-8
```

#### Selected Snippets

Adjusting the shape of falls and doits

The `shortest-duration-space` property may be tweaked to adjust the shape of falls and doits.

```\relative c'' {
\override Score.SpacingSpanner.shortest-duration-space = #4.0
c2-\bendAfter #5
c2-\bendAfter #-4.75
c2-\bendAfter #8.5
c2-\bendAfter #-6
}
```